Comparing the Effectiveness between Online Learning and Face-to-Face Learning for Senior Highschool Students
Muhamad Noor Afdillah Aduroh Alyatimah, S.Pd.
Peserta Pendidikan Profesi Guru Dalam Jabatan Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya
The COVID-19 pandemic has been impacted to all the country and every sector such as health, economic and educational sectors. Indonesia as one of the countries that has been impacted by the COVID-19 especially in education sectors due to the limitation of online devices to support online learning (internet connection, gadgets, and materials readiness) in some regions of Indonesia. This pandemic has insisted Indonesian’s students to adopt online learning and face-to-face learning process. At the first time of COVID-19, the government of Indonesia published the regulation for conducting an online learning due to the effort of decreasing the spread of COVID-19, while the spread number of COVID-19 was decreasing and stated in green zone, the Government started to propose a partial system attendance of face-to face learning at school by following the health protocol that has been issued by the Health Ministry. At the end of 2021 until the end of 2022, many of schools have applied face-to face learning because of situation and condition that support of its learning, besides the claim of students’ parents, students and teachers also is one of factors to implement face-to-face learning.
In this article, the writer will compare online learning and face-to-face learning, then the effectiveness between online learning and face-to-face learning of Senior Highschool Students. The instrument of this study is questionnaire. The writer has arranged 10 questions for being answered by students randomly and voluntarily. The result of this research shows that face-to-face learning is dominant to be applied as learning model during COVID-19 pandemic rather than online learning models.
Keywords: comparison, effectiveness, online learning, and face-to-face learning
Pandemi COVID-19 telah mengakibatkan seluruh negara dan setiap sektor seperti: Kesehatan, ekonomi, dan Pendidikan. Indonesia merupakan salah satu negara yang terkena dampak dari Covid-19 khususnya di sektor Pendidikan karena terbatasnya peralatan yang mendukung pembelajaran online (koneksi internet, dawai elektronik, dan kesiapan materi) di beberapa daerah Indonesia. Situasi pandemi ini telah memaksa murid-murid Indonesia untuk mengadopsi pembelajaran online dan tatap muka. Pada awal COVID-19, pemerintah Indonesia mempublikasikan peraturan pembelajaran online sebagai upaya untuk mengurangi penyebaran COVID-19, akan tetapi ketika angka penyebaran COVID-19 menurun dan dinyatakan sudah dalam zona hijau, Pemerintah Pusat mulai menawarkan system partsial kehadiran pembelajaran tatap muka di Sekolah dengan menerapkan protokol Kesehatan yang diatur oleh Menteri Kesehatan. Pada akhir tahun 2021 sampai awal tahun 2022, banyak sekolah telah menerapkan pembelajaran tatap muka karena situasi dan kondisi yang sudah memungkin dan banyaknya komplain dari murid, orang tua murid, dan guru juga merupakan salah satu factor untuk melaksanakan pembelajaran tatap muka.
Di dalam artikel ini, Penulis akan membandingkan pembelajaran online dan tatap muka, dan mengukur keefektifan pembelajaran online dan tatap muka untuk murid-murid SMA. Instumen yang digunakan dalam studi ini adalah kuesioner. Penulis membuat 10 pertanyaan untuk dijawab oleh murid-murid secara acak dan sukarela. Hasil dari penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembelajaran tatap muka lebih dominan untuk diterapkan selama pandemic COVID-19 dibandingkan dengan pembelajaran online.
Kata Kunci: Perbandingan, Keefektifan, Pembelajaran Online, dan Pembelajaran Tatap Muka.
The Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has brought many effects to over 200 countries in the world, especially in Indonesia. It has drove its own obstacles for the educational sectors, specifically Highschool Students. In 2020, the Corona disease has increased, and the Government should take an action to decrease the spread of COVID-19. This situation enables the Government to stipulate various regulation, from isolation, social and physical distancing to Large-Scale Social Restrictions (PSBB) (Article 4 paragraph 1 on the Regulation Number 21 of 2020). Therefore, the Government considers the educational sectors, then makes a regulation for the students in Indonesia based on the zonation of district regarding the spread of COVID-19 (The Circular Letter No. 15 of 2020).
The Circular letter No. 15 of 2020 stipulated that to prevent the COVID-19, The teaching and learning activities must conduct via online learning due to the increase of COVID-19. This action is used for ensuring the students to obtain the educational facilities during COVID-19 pandemic, to protect the educational sectors from the worse effect of COVID-19, to prevent the transmission and infection of Corona disease, including to complete the psychosocial of teachers, students, and student’s guardian. The materials during online learning are associated with the students’ grade, cultural context, characteristics of each school in the area which are impacted by COVID-19 (The Circular Letter No. 15 of 2020).
This situation insists either the teacher or students to conquer online context, such as: computer-based platforms and mobile platforms (Jared, et.al, 2010, p. 533). However, many students are not ready for online learning because they are attacked by the course migration; the students may have social isolation because they have a limited access to communicate with the teachers; the students have limited time to convey their feedback after teaching-learning activities, and the students will lack of self-motivation because they could not get the external factors which could push them to perform well (Sander Tamm, 2022).
On the other hand, online learning also has advantages for students because the students have their own time schedule to study and release their stress, and the online learning could customize the learning environment because the students have not chance to create the learning environment based on their own; in the event of face-to-face learning, the students should follow the learning activities which are predetermined by the institution; by implementing the online learning, it cuts the learning time by a quarter up to a half percent differentiated to face-to-face learning (Sander Tamm, 2022). Therefore, the students could obtain many benefits from online learning and the students are common to learn by using online learning during 2020 and at the end of 2021.
Based on the research result explain that online learning affects the students and schools from various matters, including the readiness of electronic devices, such as Laptop, Cellular Phone, or tablets; Signal and including the internet quota (Tambunan et al.,2021). As a result, the readiness of students or teachers on preparing the material or participating on online program learning is still could not reach the standard competency (Manik, 2021).
In December 2021, Four Ministries in Indonesia which consist of Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology; the Ministry of Religious Affairs; the Ministry of Health, and the Ministry of Home Affairs issued the Joint Decree No. 03/KB/2021, No.384/2021, No.HK.01.08/MENKES/424/2021 and No. 440-717/2021, it regulates face-to-face learning to conduct the educational sectors located in particular zones (it’s referred to “Pemberlakuan Pembatasan Kegiatan Masyarakat” or PPKM level 1,2,3 regions) (Latasha Safira, 2022, p. 2). This regulation requires some of conditions, including subject to the Covid-19 safety protocols; the education personnel should have been vaccinated, the distance position between the students should be managed in the classroom. If the schools are unable to meet the requirements, they must continue to hold online learning.
The implementation of face-to face learning could be a solution for solving the obstacles in online learning (Cahyati & Kusumah, 2020). Most parents, students, and teachers support face-to-face learning as a model in PPKM situation (Supriyanto & Rozaq, 2020, p. 753-763). Then, some of students’ parents thought that face-to face learning is more effective than online learning because their students could be focused and have direct feedback from their teachers if their children have difficulties or obstacles about the subject due to the parents’ lack capability. Despite those reasons, there are some controversies during face-to-face learning implementation; parents’ opinion realized that health is a priority, and the learning still could be held from the students’ home (Emilda Sulasmi, 2022).
Although learning activities is flexible and could be conduct anywhere and anytime, the writer wants to compare and measure which is the best learning model for conducting learning activities at Senior Highschool students that will affect the students’ achievement in this pandemic situation.
- Literature review
- Definition of Online Learning
Online learning is one of learning media which has been popular since the past decade and people notice that this is a major device to interact with others (Mufanti & Susilo, 2016, p. 790) It is unlocked and wide learning system using educational aids, through the internet and network-based to facilitate the formation of learning process (Dabbagh & Ritland, 2005, p. 15) Based on the point of view the writer, online learning is the media which is held using the internet connection where the students or the teachers could access the materials broadly.
Online learning provides the students a chance to practice and acquire the communicative competence to know their own learning styles, strength, weakness in acquiring the lesson and to study collaboratively with their friend who are geographically distant to them (Pallof & Pratt, 2007, p. 35) It means that the students can consider their own learning style based on their capacity and they can share or add their knowledge via online across the country. This learning model is one of programs which encourages self-study, and it may refer to digital as a media for learning. Online learning based on Robin Mason, 1998 is divided into two: partially online or fully online. Partially online learning is integrated by existing materials that are printable or non-printable. Fully online learning is a teaching-learning activity which is conducted by online (the materials is non-printable) (Sakshi Arora, 2017, p. 32). In Indonesia, the teachers are adopted partially online learning because some of materials are still based on the textbook and non-printable material. Most of the teachers used their own textbook for teaching the students via online and send the task from the textbook to their students as their daily task or order the students to do their assignment through digital platforms.
Based on the writer’s experience in teaching online, there some advantages that facilitates students’ achievements as follows:
- Personalized learning: the learning style is determined by the students because online learning is enabled the students to plan, manage their time, make them discipline, and learn to be responsible towards their study. Besides, it has an object to motivate, develop confidence and self-esteem, overcome many obstacles that students encounter (Sakshi Arora, 2017, p. 32). In addition, the students could tend to user various “cognitive and metacognitive strategies to complete their learning achievement” (You & Kang, 2014, p.126).
- Time Efficiency: the teachers and the students could reduce traffic issues and other problems that could be arisen while attending face-to-face learning (Thomson, 2010). It will be affected to the students’ achievement if the students come late to the class and left behind for the subject which run on in the classroom.
- Cost-Effectiveness: the parents of students who are in low socioeconomic could save their cost because their children should not go to school, the parents should not spend their money to buy textbook for one year during COVID-19 pandemic. It is one of potential factor to open the pathways for more opportunities for students in “small, rural, or low socioeconomic school districts” (Chaney, 2001, p. 21) to not follow the activity at school or extracurricular.
Despite the advantages of online learning, the students also face the obstacles while conducting online learning as follows:
- Lack of quality: the students’ needs more time to comprehend the materials while the teachers are less preparation, it makes the students could not achieve their goals. The students need to have two-way interaction and it is difficult to implement and less of practice for the students to know how far the students’ potential (Journal of Educational Technology, 2020, p. 8).
- Poor accessibility in remote areas: the limited internet access, limited device for online learning will affect the learning process and online learning could not be achieved.
- Lack of Community: the students get difficult to communicate because of the limited interaction, technical problems and sometimes misunderstand the instruction to reach their goals in learning (Songs, et al, 2004, p. 59-70).
- Psychological impact: Many students are frustration because of the technology, such as they could not log in to some assignments or attendance links because of the slow-down connectivity (Sakshi Arora, 2019, p. 33).
- Lack of Knowledge: the students and the teachers are still lack of knowledge regarding the application operation, the web, and the internet utilization. This gap could be happened because the difference abilities between the students and the teachers on online application (Munir, 2009, p. 176-177).
- Readiness: The use of technology or some application of online learning feel foreign for students and the teachers (Kennedy & Archambault, 2012), so that many teachers and the students get difficult to adapt with online learning and many questions towards the teacher. The readiness of students or teacher is important because on several studies stated that readiness could influence the learning outcomes (Jayadiningrat, Tika, & Yuliani, 2017). Additionally, based on of study approved that not all students are ready to involve in online learning (Mardhiyana & Nasution, 2018).
According to the explanation above, online learning will be a good choice for the learning process if all the materials, teachers, knowledge, educational aids have been well prepared and the readiness of teachers or students is important to ensure the learning activities goes well, so there will have no obstacles in conducting online learning in pandemic situation.
- Definition of Face-to Face Learning
Now days, the government have already declared that Indonesia entering a new normal era by the opening kinds of shopping centers, public recreation, and other public place operating, even though there is a time limitation and visitors for each public places. It also as the reason to provoke the educational sectors to hold face-to-face learning without waive the joint decree of four minister as set out in the introduction. The schools must implement the health protocols if they want to hold face-to-face learning because if the schools could not subject to the health protocols, they will not allow to implement its learning. Besides, the students’ parents suggest face-to-face learning should be carried out again because they think that their children could not focus while online learning is running out. In addition, their children only copying and pasting the answer if they have an assignment from their teacher.
A good learning process takes place face-to face because it allows direct interaction between teacher and the students during the learning occurs in the classroom, then, it allows teachers to monitor the responses and behavior of their students accordingly address them as and when required (https://leverageedu.com/blog/online-classes-vs-offline-classes/).
One of the most benefits from face-to face learning is having a real response in a real time, if any questions regarding the difficult materials; the students will get an immediate answer whereas online learning takes time to wait the response. Moreover, online learning could be distracted the focus of students because it comes from the noise of environment, cell phones, or family members. The students could succeed if they are able to estimate their knowledge, and for providing a feedback and feed-forward are the most important factors (Hattie & Timperley, 2007; Sadler, 2010).
Furthermore, the advantages of face-to-face learning during the new normal ear of COVID-19 pandemic, as follows:
- Interaction: the reasons why the students prefer to choose face-to face learning because of the direct interaction. Based on some studies explained that online learning cannot completely change face-to face learning ( R, 2006 Vol. 77).
- Learning Experience: the students can directly have more practice after the theory has been delivered by the teachers and they feel more comprehend about the subject. Online learning is suitable for theoretical subject; this model was a bit hard for laboratory oriented and practical-based technical education (Kumitha, et al, 2021). Based on the research, there sixty percent of students disagreed that language and numerical courses was taught by distance education (Gok, 2015, Vol. 16).
- Better Understanding: the teachers can provide better explanation and make the students can achieve the goals of learning while the students are asking some questions related to the materials; the teachers can give more examples and explanations or carry the answers in a different way, so that the students are not needed to re-watch video or re-read the materials after the class (Maria and Jose, 2019, p. 9).
- Able to work in Group: the students can share their problems and difficulties in a group because it can motivate the students each other and share their knowledge (Maria and Jose, 2019, p. 9).
- Ease arranging the material: the students can prepare the learning materials for the students easily because they do not need to omit some of topic of the modules if they use face-to face learning (com); contrast to online learning, the teachers should shorten the materials fit to the time of application such as zoom, google meet, or others online learning application.
Despite of the reasons above, face-to face learning also has dilemma because the number of COVID-19 transmission can be risen if the school environment cannot obey the Health Protocols, so that the school should make strict rules towards the school environment’s healthy because the health is prioritized in this pandemic situation. Besides, the following of disadvantages of face-to-face implementation:
- Old-fashioned: Some of experts suggest that online learning is a new-way for educational sectors due to time and room constraint cannot attend face-to-face classes and the technology was evolved for supporting an online learning as an offer of educational tools (Marta, et al, 2018).
- Teacher-centred: Teacher will be dominant in face-to-face learning process because most of materials presentation are provided by the teacher. Learning in classrooms tend to be teacher-centred because teachers are the importance source of information, so that the students have no more chances to interact with each other (Ameliana, 2017, p.60) Besides, it tends to prioritize the students’ preparation for exams rather than to cover the students’ needs (Zohrabi, et al., 2021).
The methodology of this research is survey as one of types of qualitative research. The respondents were the students from various grade; they were 254 respondents who answer the questionnaire regarding the preference of students towards online learning and face-to-face learning. The writer provided ten questions related to the comparison of the effectiveness between online learning and face-to face learning, the students were voluntary to answer the questions. These questions involve unstructured and normally open-ended questions, which are few and instead stimulate participants’ views and opinions (Creswell, 2014). This survey used google survey form and the result of teachers’ or students’ answer were described per point.
The stage of this research was measured by analyzing and describing the result of survey. This research was conducted by random sampling of the teachers and the students from SMAN 52 North Jakarta from random subject teachers and random grade of students.
- Research Findings and Discussion
In this point, the writer presents the data from the questions that focuses on students’ preferences and the learning models that could be succeeded for learning goals during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The data presented is resulted from the questionnaire via google survey, the students are asked to fill the survey form from google and the google form present the diagram from each question. The questions consist of ten questions (the questions in Bahasa due to the limitation English language proficiency of the students and to get more real answer from the students) related to the comparison of learning models:
- Sistem pembelajaran apa yang anda sukai?
- Sistem pembelajaran apa yang lebih mudah di pahami?
- Sistem pembelajaran apa yang membuat anda terkesan?
- Sistem pembelajaran apa yang menurut anda lebih mudah untuk dipahami dalam KBM?
- Sistem pembelajaran apa yang membuat suasana pembelajaran lebih interaktif?
- Sistem pembelajaran apa yang membuat anda lebih antusias dalam belajar?
- Sistem pembelajaran apa yang lebih memudahkan anda dalam berkomunikasi baik dengan teman ataupun guru?
- Sistem pembelajaran apa yang menggambarkan lingkungan akademik?
- Sistem pembelajaran apa yang menurut anda dapat mencapai tujuan pembelajaran?
- Sistem pembelajaran manakah yang dapat membuat anda lebih fleksibel?
The students were asked to choose between online learning and face-to-face learning from each question above (the writer translated the questions into English Language), and the result of the survey as follows:
1. What kinds of learning models do you prefer?
- The result of first question described that 82.7% students chose face-to face learning, 15,7 % was online learning.
2. What are the learning models that is easier to be comprehended?
- Based on the result above, the students who chose face-to-face learning is 93.3% and 5,8% was online learning.
3. Which one the learning models that can impress you?
- As describe the chart above, 85,8% students felt impress towards face-to-face learning rather than online learning.
4. Which one the learning models that is easier in learning activities based on your opinion?
- 90,2% of students thought that face-to-face learning is easier to apply for doing various learning activities than online learning.
5. What are kinds of learning models that can make learning activities be more active?
- Based on the result above, 93,3% of face-to-face learning can make students be more active in the class during the study.
6. Which one the learning model that can support you in study?
- Based on point 6, the students considered that face-to-face learning is the learning models as a support system for studying.
7. Which one the learning models that ease you to communicate with your peer or teachers?
- As the result, face-to-face learning improved the students communication with their friends or students at school, it helped the students to have a social life and eased the students to comprehend the subjects material.
8. What are the learning models that describe an educational environment?
- Based on the answer from google form, it described that 95,3% students considered that face-to-face learning showed a real educational life.
9. Which one the learning models that is best to achieve learning goals?
- Based on the result above, only 7,9% students considered that online learning could bring them to achieve learning goals, unless 90,2% students chose face-to-face learning as one of tools that could drive them to obtain their goals.
10. Which one the learning system is more flexible?
- Lastly, face-to-face learning was dominant for students, it was about 74% students admitted that face-to-face learning is more flexible than online learning.
Based on the research result, students of SMAN 52 North Jakarta preferred to apply face-to face learning while online learning during COVID-19 pandemic because it is easier to achieve the learning goals, it described a real school environment, easy to build communication with their friend if they attend to school, and it is more flexible learning models; because the students could freely and directly ask the teacher regarding the difficult materials and no delay connection while they are studying. In addition, SMAN 52 North Jakarta is still subjected to the health protocol by the Government during the learning process at school because the students are more motivated to hold face-to-face learning rather than online learning, so that the school organizer creates the health environment during the learning process is being held.
As far as the writer’s concerned, online learning is still possible to be applied as new model of learning process due to the technology advances and it can be more efficient for students or the teacher because they only remote and access from a distance. However, the teachers and the students should be ready for the preparation of online learning from the materials, gadgets or devices support, and internet connection, in addition the application for online learning. If the teachers and the students are not ready for online learning, the learning goals and learning process will be failed and it is very dangerous issues for the educational sectors.
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